Day 1 :
University of Colorado Boulder, USA
Time : 9:30-10:15
David Allan Howe is a research advisor to the Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Colorado University Physics Department, Boulder, CO. His expertise includes time-series analysis, automated accuracy evaluation of primary cesium standards, reduction of oscillator acceleration sensitivity and precision spectral analysis. He worked with David Wineland from 1973 to 1987 doing advanced research on NIST’s primary cesium standard and compact hydrogen and ammonia standards. He developed and built the first operating compact hydrogen masers in 1979, led and implemented global high-accuracy satellite-based time-synchronization among national laboratories in the maintenance of Universal Coordinated Time (UTC).
Atomic clocks (or oscillators) form the basis of standard, everyday timekeeping. Separated, hi-accuracy clocks can maintain nanosecond-level autonomous synchronization for many days. The world’s best Cs time standards are atomic fountains that use convenient RF quantum transition at 9,192,631,770 Hz and reach total frequency uncertainties of 2.7–4×10-16 with many days of averaging time. A new class of optical atomic standards with quantum transitions having +1×10-15 uncertainties drives an optical frequency-comb divider (OFD), thus providing exceptional phase stability, or ultra-low phase noise (ULPN), at convenient RF frequencies. In terms of time, this means that a 1 ns time difference wouldn’t occur in a network of clocks for 15 days! I show how the combination of high atomic accuracy and low-phase noise coupled with reduced size, weight and power usage pushes certain limits of physics to unlock a new paradigm – creating networks of separated oscillators that maintain extended phase coherence, or a virtual lock, with no means of synchronization whatsoever except at the start. This single property elevates their usage to a vast array of applications that extend far beyond everyday timekeeping. I show how such accurate oscillators with low-phase noise dramatically improves: 1) position, navigation and timing; 2) high-speed communications, 3) private messaging and cryptology, 4) spectrum sharing, 5) relativity theory and 6) measurements of quantum consistency, i.e., alpha-dot. This talk outlines game-changing possibilities in these areas to the degree that clock properties are maintained in application and lab environments. I will show a summary of several ongoing U.S. programs in which the commercial availability of such low-phase noise, atomic oscillators are now a real possibility.
ENSTA-Ecole Polytechnique, France
Time : 10:15-11:00
Andre Mysyrowicz is a recognized world leader in the field of filamentation, with more than 150 publications and more than 10 000 citations on this subject. He has a wide experience in conducting field experiments, in the development of diagnostics and in the interpretation of data. He was one of the cofounders and leaders of Teramobile, a joint French-German project for the development and use of the first mobile terawatt laser system.
The fate of an ultra-short laser pulse propagating in air depends crucially upon its initial peak power. Below a critical value Pcr, group velocity dispersion and beam diffraction combine to rapidly reduce the pulse intensity. On the other hand, if P>Pcr a completely different behavior is observed. In this case the pulse intensity increases with distance up to the point where it becomes sufficiently high (≈1014 W/cm²) to ionize air. The pulse then retains this high intensity for very long distances, which can reach km. This regime is called filamentation. In this talk the basic notions at the heart of filamentation will be introduced. Techniques to characterize filaments will be described. This includes measurements of the beam size, pulse intensity and duration, length of the plasma column created in the wake of the pulse and the plasma density evolution. Results of numerical simulations reproducing the filamentary regime will be shown. A second part will be devoted to applications of filaments. They include the remote sensing of atmosphere, the triggering of long-lived electric discharges and the contactless transfer of high electric power and more recently the realization of cavity-free lasing in air.
Nanjing University, China
Keynote: The evidence of magnetic monopoles by astronomical observation and its astrophysical implication
Time : 11:20-12:05
Qiuhe Peng is mainly engaged in nuclear astrophysics, particle astrophysics and Galactic Astronomy research. In the field of Nuclear Astrophysics, his research project involved a neutron star (pulsar), the supernova explosion mechanism and the thermonuclear reaction inside the star, the synthesis of heavy elements and interstellar radioactive element such as the origin of celestial Al. In addition, through his lectures, he establishes Nuclear Astrophysics research in China, He was invited by Peking University, by Tsinghua University (both in Beijing and in Taiwan) and by nuclear physics institutes in Beijing, Shanghai, Lanzhou to give lectures on Nuclear Astrophysics for many times. He has participated in the international academic conferences over 40 times and he visited more than 20 countries. In 1994, he visited eight institutes in USA to give lectures. He is the first Chinese Astrophysicist to visit NASA and to give a lecture on the topic, “Nuclear Synthesis of Interstellar Al”. In 2005, he visited USA twice and gave lectures in eight universities again. Inviting six astronomers of USA to give series lectures, he has hosted four consecutive terms summer school on gravitational wave astronomy. After the four summer school obvious effect, at least 20 young scholars in China in the field of gravitational wave astronomy specialized learning and research. 220 research papers by him have been published.
A key observation has been reported in 2013: an abnormally strong radial magnetic field near the GC is discovered. Firstly, we demonstrate that the radiations observed from the GC are hardly emitted by the gas of accretion disk which is prevented from approaching to the GC by the abnormally strong radial magnetic field and these radiations can't be emitted by the black hole model at the Center. However, the dilemma of the black hole model at the GC be naturally solved in our model of super massive object with magnetic monopoles (MMs). Three predictions in our model are quantitatively in agreement with observations: 1) Plenty of positrons are produced from the direction of the GC with the rate is or so. This prediction is quantitatively confirmed by observation, 2) A strong radial magnetic field is generated by some magnetic monopoles condensed in the core region of the super massive object The magnetic field strength at the surface of the object is about 20-100 Gauss at 1.1×〖10^4 R_s (R_s is the Schwarzschild radius) or B≈(10-50) mG at r=0.12 pc. This prediction is quantitatively in agreement with the lower limit of the observed magnetic field and 3) The surface temperature of the super-massive object in the Galactic center is about 120 K and the corresponding spectrum peak of the thermal radiation is at 〖10^13[PC1] Hz in the sub-mm wavelength regime. This is quantitatively basically consistent with the recent observation. It could be concluded that it could be an astronomical observational evidence of the existence of MMs and no black hole is at the GC. Besides, making use of both the estimations for the space flux of MMs and nucleon decay catalyzed by MMs (called the RC effect) to obtain the luminosity of celestial objects by the RC effect. In terms of the formula for this RC luminosity we are able to present a unified treatment for various kinds of core collapsed supernovae, SNII, SNIb, SNIc, SLSN (super luminous supernova) and the production mechanism for γ ray burst. The remnant of the supernova explosion is a neutron star rather than a black hole, regardless of the mass of the progenitor of the supernova. Besides, the heat source of the earth’s core as well as the energy source needed for the white dwarf interior is the same mechanism of the energy source as supernova. This unified model can also be used to reasonably explain the possible association of the shot γ ray burst detected by the Fermi γ ray Burst Monitoring Satellite (GBM) with the September 2015 LIGO gravitational wave event GW150914. Finally, we propose that the physical mechanism of Hot Big Bang of the Universe is also nucleons decay driven by the magnetic monopoles, similar to the supernova explosion.
Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan
Time : 12:05-12:50
Muralidhar Miryala is the Deputy President at Shibaura Institute of Technology (SIT) and Professor at the Graduate School of Science and Engineering. His main task is to transform SIT into a high rank university. He is interested in applications and technology of bulk single-grain superconductors. He is the author and co-author of more than 400 publications and delivered over 100 oral presentations including plenary and invited ones. He holds several Japanese and international patents, received numerous awards, including Young Scientist Award, Director’s Award, PASREG Award of Excellence, Best Presentation Award and Amity Global Academic Excellence Award. He is also an Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board Member of several international journals.
We are facing the problem of possible future running out of oil parallel with increase of energy consumption in connection with the expected population growth to 8-10 billion people to the year of 2050. At the moment, we are emitting twice the amount of CO2 that atmosphere can integrate. For solving this issue, alternate energy sources are solar, wind, but also high-Tc superconductivity at hand. For instance, the electricity generation by photovoltaics (PV) is needed to highly expand over the present scale of Gigawatts. In connection with this goal, development of energy storage and transportation technologies will be necessary. Together with solving the energy production and transport issues, development of new materials and innovative technologies saving energy consumption is crucial. In this talk, recent trends in high-Tc superconducting material processing will be introduced and then the new super-magnet applications will be presented. The bulk superconducting magnets can trap magnetic fields by order of magnitude higher than the best classical hard magnets and are therefore promising as permanent magnets for use in magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS), for construction of small mobile diagnostic devices, for water cleaning technologies, etc. Human’s body is so complicated that a controlled drug delivery is extremely difficult. This process can be accomplished by magnetic force in the body by exerting a strong magnetic field on the diseased tissue. As a result, a high drug concentration can be delivered in a controlled way to the targeted diseased organ. Superconducting material is also used in superconducting DC cables, promising in particular in transport of solar energy as well as in feeding cables for railway system applications. In this presentation, I will summarize the recent development in use of bulk superconducting materials in superconducting magnets and of superconducting cables in various industrial applications.